Ten Plagues - Summary

The ten plagues may be divided into 4 sections, three groups of three and a final plague. The first three sections are each introduced by a warning to pharaoh that occurs in the morning. They are each ended by a plague that comes without warning. Within the three sections we also see a distinct progression with regard to the long term effect the plague has upon the land.

In section one we get temporary inconveniences that are applied to the Israelites and the Egyptians alike.

In the second section we get the separation between Israelite and Egyptian, we also get plagues that may have some long-term side effects.

In the third section Pharoah is told that God is going to destroy Egypt (9v15) and the people saw this happen (10v7). The interesting point of section three is that the servants of Pharoah (and later the people of Egypt) start to get far more involved with proceedings.

Each plague may also be viewed as an attack on one of the Egyptian Gods.

The Ten Plagues
Plague Warning Replication Respite Response God Attacked
Water into Blood Pharoah was warned and allowed to watch Yes The Egyptions managed to work around the problem Pharoahs heart was hardened Hapi (the God of the Nile)


Pharoah warned but was not with Moses when it happened Yes Pharoah named the time the frogs would go Compromise but then Pharoah hardened his heart Heqt (interestingly many frogs was usually viewed as a good thing)
Lice No Warning No. The magicians saw the lice as an act of God We're not told but presumably Pharoahs heart was hardened. He doesn't even speak to Moses. Kheper (God of beetles and flies)
Flies Pharoah warned but not with Moses when it happened No. In fact they didn't even try The flies were removed when Pharoah promised to let the Israelites go Pharoah hardened his heart Kheper
Murrain Pharoah warned and told when it would happen Again they didn't try It was a one off action.. but the cattle stayed dead. The heart of Pharoah was hardened. Apis (Sacred Bull)
Boils Pharoah not warned but was there when Moses did it Magicians could not even heal themselves We're not told but one would imagine scarring would result The Lord hardened Pharoah's heart. Imhotep (physician God) & Thoth (Magic and healing)
Hail Pharoah and servants warned. Those that heeded the warning escaped. Didn't try. No respite, crops destroyed although some crops left. Pharoah admits sin but then sins more by hardening his heart Nut (Sky Goddess)
Locusts Pharoah warned and his servants almost cause him to give in Didn't try Complete devastation, this years harvest gone. Pharoah acts in haste and compromises. The Lord hardens Pharoahs heart. Seth (God of Crops)
Dark No Warning Didn't try Yes, three days only Pharoah heart hardened by God. Tells Moses to "get out of sight" Ra (Sun God)
First Born Yes No No - firstborn dead Israelites let go Pharoah

A table showing how the Egyptian plagues relate to the seven vials of wrath in Revelation 16 is available here.

If you would like to test your knowledge of the Biblical Plagues then a multiple choice quiz is available here.

Interested in eschatology or the Bible in general? You may want to check out the sections on Daniel, Revelation or Biblical Exposition.


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